Cytocentesis is used to collect a sample of urine direct from the bladder. It is very difficult to perform without ultrasound guidance in adult tigers but in cubs and immature individuals it is possible using palpation.
In an adult tiger the animal should be placed in lateral or dorsal recumbency and the caudal abdomen clipped and prepared for an ultrasound examination. When the bladder has been identified using the ultrasound probe an area over the site should be aseptically prepared. Using ultrasound guidance a 2 inch 21G needle should then be used to enter the bladder and extract a sample of urine.
In smaller tigers the tiger should be positioned as standing, or in dorsal recumbency if sedated. The bladder should be palpated manually in the caudal abdomen. In a standing animal an area should be shaved and aseptically prepared over the right side of the bladder (to avoid penetrating the descending colon) and a urine sample extracted from the bladder using a 2inch 21G needle as above. In a dorsally recumbent animal the bladder should be manually palpated and then an area shaved and prepared in the midline just in front of the pelvic brim. A sample of urine should then be collected as above.
The urine collected should be placed immediately in a sterile plain tube (for basic urinalysis, urine protein creatinine ration and sediment analysis) and in a boric acid tube (for culture). Both tubes should be stored in a fridge before analysis.