Disease threat: Algal toxins
Hazard description: Periodically algal blooms colonise fresh-water and marine environments. Some produce algal toxins, and the frequency of harmful algae appears to have increased. Examples include red-tides in marine waters and blue-green algae in freshwater systems (Friend & Fransen 1999). Terrestrial wildlife exposure and toxicity have been reported (Duy et al. 2000; Castle et al. 2013; Mancini et al. 2010; Stewart et al. 2008), although no reports of toxicity in free-ranging wild felid species found.
Diagnosis: Confirmation not straightforward, circumstantial evidence important (Friend & Fransen 1999).
Vaccination: Not applicable.
Free-ranging tiger occurrence: No reports found.
Distribution: Potentially any marine or fresh-water environment. Several reports of wildlife casualties appear to come from North America – but this may of course be reporting bias.